NAHT CYMRU has welcomed the publication of key messages for education professionals from the Centre of Expertise on Child Sexual Abuse
The ‘Key messages from research on child sexual exploitation: Professionals in school settings’ paper aims to increase school professionals’ confidence to take appropriate action based on the best current research evidence. The paper looks at understanding child sexual abuse and offers best practice in supporting young people affected.
The Centre of Expertise on Child Sexual Abuse is also embarking on a long-term project to look at the scale and nature of child sexual exploitation in England and Wales. It has produced an initial scoping document that assesses the current knowledge of CSE and outlines the breadth of the work it hopes to undertake.
The Centre of Expertise on Child Sexual Abuse is funded by the Home Office, led by Barnardo’s, and works closely with key partners from academic institutions, local authorities, health, education, police, and the voluntary sector. It works on identifying, generating and sharing high-quality evidence of what works to prevent and tackle Child Sexual Abuse (including Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE), and to inform both policy and practice .
WHAT IS CSE?
‘ Child sexual exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity (a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or (b) for the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator ‘ . (New England definition 2017).
There is no one way that CSE is perpetrated. Grooming is common in some forms of CSE, but it is not always present. Online and offline exploitation can overlap. That children and young people may appear to co-operate cannot be taken as consent: they are legally minors and subject to many forms of coercion and control. These abuses of power are similar to those which are recognised in domestic violence and they may lead to children and young people being unable to recognise what is happening to them as abuse.
Whilst all of the research evidence to date shows that girls and young women are the majority of victims, boys and young men are also exploited. The average age at which concerns are first identified is at 12 to 15 years, although recent studies show increasing rates of referrals for 8 to 11 – year – olds, particularly in relation to online exploitation. Less is known about the exploitation of those from Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT ) communities.
There is no ‘typical’ victim. That said, some young people may be more vulnerable than others, and a range of indicators have been highlighted to which professionals should be alert.
These include: prior abuse in the family; deprivation; homelessness; misuse of substances; disability; being in care; running away/going missing; gang-association. It is not known whether these also apply to young people where exploitation begins or wholly occurs online, although some factors appear to be involved in both contexts. It is important to remember that indicators are not evidence that sexual exploitation has taken place. All they suggest is that practitioners need to use their professional curiosity and judgement to explore what is going on with each young person.
Child sexual exploitation can happen to young people from all backgrounds. Whilst young women are the majority of victims, boys and young men are also exploited.
A ‘ WHOLE SCHOOL ’ APPROACH
Creating an educational environment in which there is a ‘whole-school’ approach to addressing gender inequality, sexual consent, and relationships built on respect is crucial in responding to violence and abuse, including CSE. The curriculum, school policies, pastoral support and school ethos all contribute to environments that enable or challenge exploitative practices and the attitudes that condone them.
PREVENTING CSE THROUGH THE CURRICULUM
Work to prevent CSE should be taking place in independent and maintained schools, as well as state-funded schools, free schools and academies (where appropriate) and alternative educational settings, including Pupil Referral Units, Short Stay Schools, colleges and post- 16 training, including from independent providers.
Schools are ideally placed to deliver information to students about CSE and a number of resources exist for them to use in doing so. It is important that this work also challenges attitudes and helps students to develop emotional and social skills. Opportunities to learn about sexual exploitation should be available in age appropriate forms in both primary and secondary schools. Open conversations inside and outside the classroom can help children recognise potentially abusive behaviours, identify trusted adults who they can talk to and offer information about support services.
Some young people may be more vulnerable – those who have experienced prior abuse, are homeless, are misusing alcohol and drugs, have a disability, are in care, are out of education, have run away/ gone missing from home or care, or are gang-associated.
All schools (including alternative educational settings such as Pupil Referral Units and Short Stay Schools, colleges and post-16 training) should assume that CSE is an issue that needs to be addressed.
An educational environment where there is a ‘whole-school’ approach to addressing gender inequality, sexual consent, and relationships built on respect should be developed.
All schools are ideally placed to deliver information to students about CSE through preventative education that delivers knowledge and challenges attitudes.
Staff within the school community should be trained to spot potential ‘warning signs’ of CSE and to feel confident to begin conversations based on their concerns.
Multi-agency links mean that schools can be part of developing a protective community network which holds perpetrators to account.
A SAFE AND SECURE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
A prevention curriculum should be combined with a safe and secure school environment which promotes positive and respectful relationships between peers, between students and staff, and includes wider parent/carer engagement.
Whilst the school environment can represent a positive space for young people, it may also be a context within which they experience sexual exploitation. Sexual exploitation can also involve peers in complex ways, as facilitators, abusers or bystanders. Grooming and sexual exploitation may take place during the school day, including by gang-associated peers. Some students may introduce other young people to exploiters. Social media may facilitate the spreading of gossip and images around peer groups so that the impact of CSE taking place outside of school may ‘migrate’ back into it.
Every school community should assume that CSE is an issue. In addition to educating young people about CSE, schools need to identify and support young people who are affected. Links should be made with relevant school policies, including those on bullying, sexual violence and harassment and equalities. Young people may not think of themselves as victims and may believe that they are in love. A proactive approach should therefore be taken to identifying victims, distinguishing between disruptive behaviour and early warning signs of exploitation.
Swansea University appoints new Chancellor
PROFESSOR Dame Jean Thomas is an Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, immediate past Master of St Catharine’s College, Cambridge, and current President of the Royal Society of Biology.
Professor Thomas carried out her first duty as Chancellor this week, when she presented degree awards to graduates on Monday, during Swansea University’s winter degree ceremonies (Jan 8-10) to be held at the Great Hall at the University’s Bay Campus.
Professor Thomas is an alumna of Swansea University (then known as University College Swansea, University of Wales). In 1964, she graduated with a First Class BSc in Chemistry, and in 1967, she was awarded a PhD in Chemistry.
She immediately took up a Beit Memorial Research Fellowship at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge and two years later joined the academic staff of the Biochemistry Department, University of Cambridge, where she has worked ever since and become Professor of Macromolecular Biochemistry in 1991.
In 2007, she was elected as the 38th Master of St Catharine’s College, Cambridge and served for 10 years –the first (and still only) female Master since the College was founded in 1473.
She has received numerous awards and honours throughout her career, and has served on many national bodies. She is a Fellow of the Royal Society, elected in 1986, of the Academy of Medical Sciences and of the Learned Society of Wales; and a Member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) and of the Academia Europaea.
She holds honorary degrees and fellowships from several Universities and Colleges, including an Honorary Fellowship from Swansea University, awarded in 1987.
She served as Biological Secretary and Vice-President of the Royal Society for five years from 2008, as a Governor of the Wellcome Trust for seven years from 2000 and as a Trustee of the British Museum for 10 years from 1994, and has also served, inter alia, on the Councils of SERC and then EPSRC. She is currently President of the Royal Society of Biology (and previously President of the Biochemical Society), a Trustee of the Wolfson Foundation and a member of the Scientific Advisory Council for Wales.
She became a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1993 for services to Science, and in 2005 a Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (DBE) for her services to Biochemistry.
Speaking of Professor Thomas’ appointment, Swansea University’s Vice-Chancellor, Professor Richard B. Davies said: “We are extremely honoured to welcome Professor Dame Jean Thomas as our new Chancellor. Professor Thomas’ academic reputation precedes her; her career has been exemplary, and inspiring.
“Swansea University continues to grow and develop, in terms of its high-quality facilities and in terms of its reputation as an internationally-renowned research-led university.
“As we approach our centenary, in 2020, and commence the next stage of the University’s development, Professor Thomas is ideally placed to reflect our values of academic excellence innovation, and great ambition.”
On her appointment as Chancellor, Professor Dame Jean Thomas said: “When I first graduated from Swansea University many years ago, I could not have imagined that one day I would have the honour of serving as its Chancellor. The University continues to achieve and expand, and I am very much looking forward to being part of this exciting ambition as we move towards the Centenary in 2020.”
Professor Dame Jean Thomas succeeds the late Rhodri Morgan, First Minister of Wales, who was Chancellor of Swansea University between 2011 and 2017.
Aber hosts Festival of Law and Criminology
THE LEGAL implications of driverless cars, and can kids as young as 10 really tell the difference between ‘criminal’ and ‘naughty’ behaviour will be two of the many themes discussed at the inaugural Festival of Law and Criminology at Aberystwyth University.
Organised by Aberystwyth Law School staff, the one-day event takes place at Aberystwyth Arts Centre Cinema on Friday, January 19 between 10am and 5pm.
Also on the agenda will be abuse of the elderly, the future constitutional status of Wales, the politics of Higher Education, and how lawyers can be poets and songsmiths.
Described as ‘art in progress’ and a day of serious, fun, controversial, inspiring or unusual talks and conversations, musical and poetic interludes and other ‘happenings’, the event will also feature an irreverent stroll through the history of the Department.
The morning programme concludes with ‘Tell us something we don’t already know about Law and Criminology’, a panel show organised by Aberystwyth Law School students.
Entry is free and open to everyone.
“The Festival celebrates the people and work – past, present and future – of Law and Criminology at Aberystwyth University,” says organiser Dr Uta Kohl, Director of Postgraduate Studies at Aberystwyth Law School.
“We are delighted that Lord Elystan Morgan, Dyfed Powys Police & Crime Commissioner Dafydd Llywelyn, Assembly Member Mark Isherwood, Wales Online’s Paul Rowland and long standing friend and supporter Dr Tim Brain, former Chief Constable of Gloucestershire Constabulary will be joining colleagues from the Department for a varied day that should be informative and entertaining in equal measure, and offer something of interest to everyone, be they students, staff, alumni or members of the local community. All are welcome.”
In a 30 minute address Aberystwyth University law graduate and member of the House of Lords, Lord Elystan Morgan, will ask whether Wales’ future status in a devolved UK should be that of a Dominion.
Police and Crime Commissioner Dafydd Llywelyn, a lecturer at the Department until his election in May 2016, will be interviewed by criminology lecturer Dr Kathy Hampson on the criminality of children – ‘Keeping Kids out of Trouble’.
The afternoon session opens with Paul Rowland, editor of WalesOnline and editor-in-chief of Media Wales, discussing ‘The Politics of Higher Education’ with Aber alumnus and Conservative Assembly Member for North Wales Mark Isherwood.
And the penultimate session of the day will see Aberystwyth graduate and former Chief Constable of Gloucestershire Constabulary, Dr Tim Brain, discuss ‘Policing by Consent – Myth and Reality’.
Becoming a teacher
TO TEACH in a Welsh state school, you must have a degree, and gain Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) by following a programme of Initial Teacher Training (ITT).
All teachers in Wales are also required to register with the Education Workforce Council (EWC).
In Wales, most training programmes are university or college-based, and you have a choice of programmes delivered in English or Welsh. QTS awarded by the Education Workforce Council in Wales is automatically recognised in England.
UCAS Teacher Training is the scheme to use to apply for the main postgraduate routes leading to QTS. If you don’t already hold a degree, you can apply via UCAS Undergraduate for teacher training programmes, to graduate with QTS.
Some more specialised teaching routes – including the Welsh Graduate Teacher Programme and Teach First – are not managed by UCAS and have a different application process. These training options offer different routes to gain QTS, depending on your professional or academic background.
University-led PGCE or PGDE
Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) and Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) training programmes are available for prospective primary and secondary school teachers. You’ll get classroom experience by spending time teaching and being trained in at least two schools, as well as time at the university or college you’ve chosen, working with a group of other students and being taught by university staff.
Typically a one year programme, students must complete a minimum of 120 days in a school, among blocks of study at their chosen training provider. Spaces on popular teacher training programmes fill up quickly. Places are allocated on a first-come, first-served basis, so apply early.
Graduate Teacher Programme
For prospective primary and secondary teachers wishing to study for their Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) in Wales, the Graduate Teacher Programme (GTP) is an employment-based route into teaching which offers a way to qualify as a teacher while you work. Programmes typically last for one year and require students to pass a newly qualified teaching year.
The GTP is very similar to School Direct (salaried) programmes in England, but is managed and delivered by the three regional teacher training centres in Wales:
- North and Mid Wales Centre for Teacher Education
- South West Wales Centre of Teacher Education
- South East Wales Centre for Teacher Education
There are a limited number of primary and secondary places available on the GTP in Wales each year. Applications are made directly to the regional teacher training centres. For more information, see Discover Teaching in Wales.
Teach First: Leadership Development Programme
This option combines leadership development and teacher training, giving applicants the chance to become an inspirational leader in classrooms that need it the most. It is a two year salaried programme leading to a Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) qualification. Following five weeks of intensive training, you’ll continue to learn on the job while you work towards QTS.
Bachelor of Education (BEd) degrees
Bachelor of Education (BEd) teacher training programmes are an undergraduate route for those who would like to follow a career in teaching, and graduate with Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). BEd programmes typically last three years, and are a popular route for prospective primary school teachers. Some providers do offer secondary-level BEd programmes for specific specialisms.
Bachelor of Arts (BA) and Bachelor of Science (BSc) with QTS
Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BSc) degrees with Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) are popular with prospective secondary school teachers, and focus on developing specialist subject knowledge required to teach. Not a common route for those wanting to study for primary teacher training programmes, most providers only offer BA and BSc with QTS for secondary teaching.
Certificate of Higher Education (CertHE): Introduction to Secondary Teaching
This Wales-only training route is for prospective secondary teachers who may not have any formal academic qualifications, but do have a passion for maths, science, or design technology. This route gives you the chance to earn the credits needed to meet the entry requirements for BSc (Hons) degree programmes, enabling you to work towards QTS in three years.
Full-time undergraduate and postgraduate Initial ITE courses attract funding in the same way as other undergraduate degree programmes.
This means full-time students will be able to apply for student finance for fees and living costs in the same way as undergraduates on any other higher-education course.
In addition, the Welsh Government offers incentives for top graduates to train to teach in designated subjects, particularly sciences, modern languages, Welsh, and ICT.
Eligible students who are ordinarily resident in Wales and started full-time postgraduate ITE courses in the current academic year could also get a Fee Grant of up to £4,954.
Grants are also available, depending on the subject studied, for eligible ITE students undertaking full-time, pre-service PGCE PCET/FE courses.
Student teachers starting postgraduate secondary ITE courses and training through the medium of Welsh may be able to get the Welsh Medium Improvement Scheme grant. This is aimed at student teachers who need extra support to raise confidence in their ability to teach effectively in Welsh.
Student teachers on some employment-based teacher education courses will be paid a salary by their school. This will be at least equal to the minimum point on the unqualified teacher pay scale, but their school may choose to pay more.
Information on employment-based routes in Wales can be found under the ‘Employment-based routes’ section of the Teacher Education and Training in Wales website at http://bit.ly/1fFu5Ap
Students can also attend School-centred Initial Teacher Training courses in England if they have been designated to receive funding by the Welsh Government.
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